Home » Posts tagged 'sentenced'
Tag Archives: sentenced
(Morning Star News) – The COVID-19 crisis in Iran has resulted in freedom for several Christians among the roughly 85,000 people released from prison, but convictions have continued in spite of a short-lived lull in actions against converts to Christianity, sources said.
The release of imprisoned Christians as part of the regime’s efforts to curb the spread of the novel coronavirus was pragmatic and not an indication of a change of policy by the Iranian government, rights advocates said.
“For a time it looked like the authorities were too busy with coronavirus to bother with the Christians,” a researcher at Middle East Concern (MEC) told Morning Star News. “Now we know they have really turned their attention again to targeting Christian converts.”
On April 21 Christian convert Mary (Fatemeh) Mohammadi, 21, was sentenced to flogging and three months plus one day in prison for taking part in a January protest in Tehran over the downing of Ukranian Airlines Flight 752 by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps of Iran. Though the case is unrelated to her faith, since previously serving a six-month prison sentence for charges due to Christian activity, Mohammadi has been harassed and denied education, according to MEC.
In the hearing, the judged asked Mohammadi about her Christian faith, although it had no bearing on the charges of “disturbing public order” that she faced, raising concerns as to whether her faith influenced the judge’s handling of the case.
Mohammadi will not appeal her sentence, which has been suspended due to the coronavirus crisis.
Mohammadi’s court hearing was suspended in April due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The MEC researcher said he was surprised that the court pursued the charges despite recent postponements within the judicial system.
“Personally, I thought they would have given priority to more serious cases,” he said.
Similarly, multiple sentences handed down to Christian convert Ismaeili Maghrebinejad based on virtually no evidence remain in effect, alarming advocates.
Maghrebinejad, 65, was sentenced to two years in prison on Feb. 27 for “membership of a group hostile to the regime” for receiving a Bible verse from Philippians from a Christian media organization, according to MEC. According to a court document, the organization advocates “Evangelical Zionist Christianity,” which is not tolerated by the regime.
When appealing the sentence, instead of a reprieve, Maghrebinejad was given an additional one year for “propaganda against the state.”
This followed a three-year sentence for “insulting Islamic sacred beliefs,” in a civil court hearing on Jan. 8. The crime: Maghrebinejad had responded to a joke on social media deemed critical of the clergy – with a smiley face emoji.
“This was the only evidence that they could find after arresting him without cause and searching his house without a warrant,” the MEC researcher told Morning Star News. “This is very disturbing. This is an elderly man. His family is not living in the country anymore, and he is really being targeted by the authorities. They are determined.”
Maghrebinejad is released on bail and appealing all three convictions.
The disappointing conviction came on the heels of more positive developments due to the virus, including the release of Christian converts Amin Khaki, Rokhsareh (Mahrokh) Ghanbari and Fatemeh Bakhteri.
The three Christians initially were released temporarily on bail of several thousand dollars, but as the novel coronavirus crisis continued, so did their release.
Khaki was released conditionally on March 2 after paying a bail bond and serving eight months of a 14-month sentence for “propaganda against the regime and establishing house churches.” Roughly one month later, Khaki was notified that he was not required to return.
After serving about seven months of their one-year sentences for “spreading propaganda against the regime,” Ghanbari and Bakhteri were also released temporarily in March.
Prison authorities informed Ghanbari in early April that she was not required to return, while Bakhteri was informed that her temporary release was extended, according to advocacy group Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW).
Remaining in Prison
Several other Christians with longer sentences remain in prison despite the threat of contracting the virus, including pastor Yousef Nadarkani and three others arrested with him – Mohammadreza Omidi, Yasser Mossaybzadeh and Saheb Fadaie.
All four are still serving 10-year sentences handed down in June 2017 for charges of “acting against the national security through propagating house churches and promoting Zionist Christianity,” according to CSW.
They requested furlough due to several coronavirus cases within some of the wards of Evin Prison, according to MEC, but it was denied.
Nadarkani’s case was reviewed by the revolutionary court in May, but the outcome is unknown, according a Middle East expert at CSW. He said it was unclear why Pastor Nadarkani has not been released.
“I guess he is a very high-profile case, so maybe to give a message to the Iranian society, and especially Iranian Christian converts, that, ‘Don’t think we are relaxing our policies – it is just temporary,’” he said.
Advocates are hoping that more prisoners will be released permanently, and that those who were first released temporarily will be able to retrieve bail amounts that are often several thousand dollars.
The novel coronavirus hit Iran hard economically, and released Christian converts experience an additional layer of suffering, as it is harder for those targeted by the government to find jobs, the Middle East specialist at CSW said. They and potential employers are often harassed, eventually forcing them to leave the country.
The recent releases are largely image control by the Iranian government, he added.
“This serves the Iranian propaganda, because they release the prisoner,” he said. “They get some credit for that…but they make life so difficult for them that they have to leave Iran. They use these tactics to sort of dissuade and discourage others form converting or expressing their new faith in public.”
Iran was ranked ninth on Open Doors’ 2020 World Watch List of the countries where it is most difficult to be a Christian.
VOP NOTE: Voice of the Persecuted well knows the situation Iranians Christians are facing. We have asked you to keep praying for our sister in Christ, Anita. She, a Christian convert, recently appealed her sentence but was sentenced to a harsh term of 10years in prison for sharing the Gospel in Iran. This took place while others have been released during the Covid-19 pandemic. At present, Anita is under house arrest and waiting to be called back to the prison. Please continue to pray for her and all others bein persecuted for their faith by the Iranian Regime.
(Morning Star News) – A Christian in Iran convicted of conducting evangelistic activities began a mandated two years in exile this month in a remote area on the border with Pakistan, sources said.
As part of a larger prison sentence delivered in 2013, Ebrahim Firoozi, 33, was sentenced to two years in exile in Sarbaz, a frontier town on the Iranian-Pakistani border known for its isolation and prevalence of Islamic militant groups.
The sentence, which will expose the convert from Islam to extended periods of danger and isolation, was meant to keep him “from having a positive influence on people and to stop him from fellowshipping with the people in the Tehran area,” a source at advocacy group Middle East Concern (MEC) told Morning Star News.
Released from Rajaei Shahr Prison in Karaj on Oct. 26, he was ordered to report to Sarbaz following a brief period to order personal matters.
Firoozi, whose mother died while he was in prison, arrived in Sarbaz on Tuesday (Nov. 12).
Having found housing in “a remote desert town out in the middle of nowhere,” he was said to be looking for work.
Firoozi n August 2013 was convicted of charges of “propaganda against the Islamic Republic,” “launching and directing evangelism” and “running a Christian website” He was sentenced to a year in prison and the term of exile.
While serving the prison sentence, Firoozi faced a second trial where he was sentenced to an additional five years for “crimes against national security,” “participating in illegal gatherings” and “colluding with foreign entities.”
Court Hearing Delayed
A hearing of an appeal by a group of Christians with prison sentences as long as 15 years was postponed without reason Wednesday (Nov. 13).
The delay was one of several in the appeal process for the Christians. In February a judge who was later unseated for corruption inexplicably combined a case involving a pastor’s wife with two longstanding appeal cases against other Christians. The three cases were delayed in September when the judge declined to show up.
Although delaying court cases is a common method to harass Christians charged with or convicted of crimes of belief, a researcher at MEC who requested anonymity said some of the delays surrounding the three cases could be due to court confusion about why the third case was combined with the earlier two. No date has been set for a new hearing.
The first case involves an Assyrian pastor, Victor Bet Tamraz, and two converts from Islam, Amin Nader Afshari and Kavian Fallah Mohammadi; all were arrested at a Christmas celebration in December 2014.
The second case also involves Afshari, as well as Hadi Asgari, from a 2016 arrest during what was essentially a picnic.
In the third case, Pastor Tamraz’s wife, Shamiram Issavi Khabizeh, was summoned by authorities in June 2017. Pastor Tamraz was sentenced the next month to 10 years in prison for “acting against national security.” Afshari, Agsari and Mohammadi received prison sentences of between 10 and 15 years on similar charges.
For charges of “acting against national security,” and “acting against the regime by organizing small groups, attending a seminary abroad and training church leaders and pastors to act as spies,” Shamiram was sentenced in January 2018 to five years in prison.
Iran was ranked ninth on Christian support organization Open Doors’ 2019 World Watch List of the countries where it is most difficult to be a Christian.
An Egyptian court sentenced three Coptic Christian teenagers to five years in prison on Thursday for mocking Islam in a video. A fourth Christian teen was condemned to a juvenile detention center for an indefinite period of time.
The video was shot on a mobile phone in January 2015 and depicts the four teens allegedly mocking Muslim prayers.
Defense lawyer Maher Naquib insisted the youths had not created the video to insult Islam but to instead mock the beheadings carried out by ISIS jihadists.
However, all four Christians, as well as their teacher who was also featured in the video, have been sentenced to prison.
“The judge didn’t show any mercy. He handed down the maximum punishment,” Naguib told Agency French Press.
The Egyptian Commission for Rights and Freedoms said in a statement that after the video’s release the teens were imprisoned for 45 days and endured “ill-treatment.” Read More
RIYADH (AFP) — A Saudi court jailed a Lebanese man for six years and sentenced him to 300 lashes after convicting him of encouraging a Saudi woman to convert to Christianity, local dailies reported Sunday.
The same court sentenced a Saudi man convicted in the same case to two years in prison and 200 lashes for having helped the young woman flee the ultra-conservative Muslim kingdom, local daily Al-Watan said.
A court delivered the verdict in Khobar in the kingdom’s east, where the woman and the two accused worked for an insurance company.
The July 2012 case caused a stir in Saudi Arabia, which applies a strict version of Islamic Sharia law that stipulates Muslims who convert to another religion must be sentenced to death.
The woman, known only as “the girl of Khobar”, was granted refuge in Sweden where she lives under the protection of unspecified NGOs, according to local press reports.
She had appeared in a YouTube video last year in which she announced that she had chosen to convert to Christianity.
The case of the “Khobar Girl,” as she has become known in the Saudi media, has captivated the deeply conservative kingdom. Under Saudi law, any form of proselytization is illegal, and Muslims who convert to another religion must be sentenced to death.
The woman, who is in her early 20s, is currently living abroad in Sweden, according to local press reports.
Last year she appeared in a video for a site called “Jesus Set Me Free,” an Arabic-language Evangelical Christian website, to announce her conversion.
In the video, the girl, her face covered, urges others to “ask God” if they are “hesitant or afraid,” emphasizing her belief that “[Jesus] is the son of God and I have seen him” in her dreams.
Her family’s lawyer Hmood al-Khalidi said he was “satisfied with the verdict,” according to the press.
Both men, who could also be prosecuted over other charges including corruption and forging official documents that allowed the woman to leave the country without her family’s agreement, will appeal.
Saudi women are banned from traveling without their guardians’ permission.
As you read this, Pastor Farshid is incarcerated in Iran’s most notorious prison. He is serving a six year sentence.
His crime is his Christian faith.
This is his story:
26 December 2010: Farshid is arrested at his home in Tehran by agents of the Intelligence Ministry. He is taken to Evin prison.
- December 2010- February 2011: Farshid is held in solitary confinement and faces long, harsh interrogation sessions on a regular basis.
- February 2011-February 2012: Farshid is held in a small cell with one other person in Section 209 of Evin.
- 5 February 2012: Farshid is brought to trial at Branch 15 of Revolutionary Court in Tehran. He is convicted by Judge Salavati of ‘action against the national security’, through cooperating with foreign organisations and evangelism, and sentenced to a total of six years’ imprisonment. He is moved to section 350 of Evin.
- 23 May 2012: Farshid’s appeal hearing occurs.
- Late June 2012: A verdict is issued: it upholds the verdict of the February Court.
- November 2012: Farshid writes to his spiritual family
- February 2013: Farshid’s family safely resettled to Canada where they have been offered refuge.
- December 2016: Farshid due for release.
Letter from Farshid
Please accept my warmest greetings from the heart of prison in the name of Jesus.
It has been a long time since I have been able to hear you. But I sense the fragrance of your prayers as a cool breeze on my heart and it strengthens me from afar. I have gone through difficult days, but more than ever before I have seen myself in the bosom of the Lord, which is full of love. I have had a deep experience of loneliness, but I have never felt alone.
Often I have been sorrowful because of certain things, but I have never been a slave of sadness. Often I have been insulted, humiliated and accused, but I have never doubted my identity in Christ. Some have deserted me, some have fled from me, of course in no way I pass judgement on them. My Lord has never left me.
I spent 361 days in a locked cell, and I did not see the sunlight for days, but the mercies of the Lord were made new every morning. I have many things to say, but I like to say how much I love you. I miss you, our other brother and my dear aunty. I miss the little ones and their parents. Please give my greetings to my dear uncle. I know that with power and love he is praying for me and my family.
Probably I cannot be with you for a few years. However your word and exhortations are in the ear of my soul. I hope that at the end I will be able to see you. But if the Father calls me to the eternal abode, please protect and support my family more than before, especially my children who are dearest of my heart.
The narrow way, that I am passing through I see as a cup that my Beloved has given me, and I will drink it to the end, whatever that end might be. What really matters is that I am my Beloved’s and my Beloved is mine. This possibly is the sweetest truth of my life that I am His and He is mine.
Two of the brothers send you greetings from here. Also two sisters who are separated from us by a few high walls. I too here am continuously praying for you and your loving family. Please convey my greetings to all dear brothers and sisters who have been praying for me and my family and tell them ‘In our land the fig tree does not blossom, the produce of olive has failed. The flock is cut off from the fold. Yet we rejoice in the Lord and take joy in the God of our salvation. Because neither the walls nor the barbed wires, nor the prison, nor suffering, nor loneliness, nor enemies, nor pain, nor even death separates us from the Lord and each other.
With love and greetings in Christ,
FREE FARSHID -Take Action
Today you can BE HIS VOICE by joining the campaign to see Farshid released and reunited with his family. No-one should be imprisoned simply for their faith.
Please take action today.
- Are you in the UK? Write to your MP today and urge them to add their signature to the Early Day Motion (EDM) on Farshid.
- Are you in Europe? Write to you MEP today and urge them to raise the case of Farshid in the European Parliament.
What else can you do?
- Write to Farshid to encourage him during his imprisonment.
- Prayer: it’s the most powerful weapon we have for this fight. Order prayer bookmarks to remind you and your church to keep Farshid in your prayers.
- Share: tell your friends about FreeFarshid.org
- Follow the Free Farshid campaign on Twitter and Facebook
American Pastor Saeed Abedini, has been charged with threatening national security and sentenced to 8 years in Iran’s notorious Evin prison. Many in this prison do not survive only a few months of the extremely brutal mistreatment. While there, he has been tortured and abused and has received minimal medical care. Being that Saeed is a Christian, the Muslim medical staff do not want to tend to, or even come near him. He is considered “unclean”, because of his faith in Christ. Why is this happening? Simply for sharing his Christian faith in homes across Iran. For this reason, he is seen as a threat to the Islamic Iranian government.
In 2009, he was briefly detained by the Iranian regime for leading a house church movement. He signed an agreement to discontinue these activities and Iran agreed to release him. The purpose for his return to Iran was to visit family and to work on building a much needed orphanage, open to children of any faith. Pastor Abedini has a heart for orphans, children so easily forgotten in the world. His wife, Naghmeh says he has held up to his part of the agreement, but Iran has not. Naghmeh and their two small children are desperate for him to return home to the U.S. quickly and safely!
Saeed has shown COURAGE few of us can comprehend. Pastor Saeed is being wrongfully held in Iran. ACT NOW and SIGN the International petition. Your signature could SAVE HIS LIFE! People from all nations may sign this petition. Please help us Save Saeed, OUR BROTHER!
In the course of fighting for Pastor Saeed’s freedom, a number of individuals have responded with words like, “He was in Iran, what could he expect?” While it is true that Iran is a radical Islamic regime, it is also true that the nation has voluntarily and willingly signed a number of international agreements that prohibit its actions here and is even violating its own constitution. In short, Iran is not only violating Pastor Saeed’s human rights, it is violating its own laws.
The UN Charter
- The Preamble reaffirms “faith in the fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person”
- Article 1(3): “The purposes of the United Nations are . . . to achieve international cooperation . . . in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to . . . religion”
- Article 55: “The United Nations shall promote . . . universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to . . . religion.”
- Article 56 emphasizes the significance of Article 55, stating that: “all Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in cooperation with the [UN] for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55.”
The Universal Declaration
on Human Rights
- Article 2: “Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as . . .religion”
- Article 3: “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and the security of person”
- Article 5: “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment”
- Article 7: “All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law”
- Article 9: “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile”
- Article 10: “Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him”
- Article 11(1): “Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence”
- Article 18: “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public and private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance”
- Article 19: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression” [which includes the freedom of religious expression]
- Article 20: “Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association” [which includes the freedoms of religious assembly and association]
- Article 26(2): “Education shall . . . promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace”
The Cairo Declaration on
Human Rights in Islam
Note that, while the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam speaks to many rights held by humans, it is also careful to define these same rights within the Islamic religion and Shari’ah. For example, articles 24 and 25 are clear that “all the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari’ah,” and “[t]he Islamic Shari’ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration.” Yet, Shari’ah law is applied differently in different Islamic countries (e.g., in Saudi Arabia, Sharia is understood to require that women be covered from head to toe in public and that they be accompanied by a male relative when leaving the home, whereas in Pakistan, a woman is capable of being elected prime minister). As such, Shari’ah is a subjective standard.
- Article 1(a): “All men are equal in terms of basic human dignity and basic obligations and responsibilities, without any discrimination on the grounds of . . . religious belief”
- Article 2: “Safety from bodily harm is a guaranteed right. It is the duty of the state to safeguard against it”
- Article 9(b): “Every human being has the right to receive both religious and worldly education”
- Article 18(a): “Everyone shall have the right to live in security for himself, his religion”
- Article 19: “All individuals are equal before the law, without distinction between the ruler and the ruled. . . . A defendant is innocent until his guilt is proven in a fair trial in which he shall be given all the guarantees of defence”
- Article 20: “It is not permitted to subject [an individual] to physical or psychological torture or to any form of humiliation, cruelty or indignity”
The International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights
- Article 2(1): “Each State Party . . . undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals . . . the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as . . . religion”
- Article 5(2): “There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any State Party . . . pursuant to law, conventions, regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent”
- Article 6: “Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life”
- Article 7: “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment”
- Article 9: “Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. . . . Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him”
- Article 14: “All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. . . . Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality: (a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him; (b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing; (c) To be tried without undue delay; (d) To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it; (e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him”
- Article 18: “Everyone shall have the right of freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching. . . . Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others”
- Article 19: “Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference,” and “everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds” [both of which certainly include religious opinions, information, and ideas]
- Article 21: “The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of nationals security or public safety”
- Article 22: “Everyone shall have the right of freedom of association with others”
- Article 26: “All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as . . . religion”
- Article 27: “In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language”
Constitution of the
Islamic Republic of Iran
- Further, Article 3 states that “the government of . . . Iran has the duty of directing all its resources to the following goals:
14) securing the multifarious rights of all citizens, both women and men, and providing legal protection for all, as well as the equality of-all before the law”
- Following the declaration of the official religion, Article 13 states that “Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian Iranians are the only recognized religious minorities, who, within the limits of the law, are free to perform their religious rites and ceremonies, and to act according to their own canon in matters of personal affairs and religious education”
- Article 14 states that the “government of the Islamic Republic of Iran and all Muslims are duty-bound to treat non-Muslims in conformity with ethical norms and the principles of Islamic justice and equity, and to respect their human rights”
The Rights of the People
- Article 19 begins to outline the rights of the people: “All people of Iran, whatever the ethnic group or tribe to which they belong, enjoy equal rights; and color, race, language, and the like”
- Article 22 states that “the dignity, life, property, rights, residence, and occupation of the individual are inviolate, except in cases sanctioned by law”
- Article 23 states that the “investigation of individual’s beliefs is forbidden, and no one may be molested or taken to task simply for holding a certain belief”
- Article 26 states that “[p]olitical parties, societies, political and craft associations, and Islamic or recognized minority religious associations may be freely brought into being, provided that no violation is involved of the principles of independence, freedom, national unity, Islamic standards, and the foundations of the Islamic Republic”
- Article 32 states that “[n]o person may be arrested except according to and in the manner laid down in the law. If someone is detained, the subject matter of the charge, with reasons (for bringing it), must immediately be communicated and explained in writing to the accused. Within at most 24 hours the file on the case and preliminary documentation must be referred to the competent legal authority”
- Article 37 states that “[i]nnocence is the basic principle. No person is considered legally guilty, except in cases where his guilt is established in a competent court”
- Article 38 states that “[a]ny kind of torture used to extract an admission of guilt or to obtain information is forbidden. Compelling people to give evidence, or confess or take an oath is not allowed. Such evidence or confession or oath is null and void”
- Article 41 states that “[c]itizenship of Iran is the unquestioned right of all Iranians. The Government may not deprive any Iranian of his citizenship, except at their own request, or if they take up citizenship of another country”
- Article 165 states that “trials are to be held openly and members of the public may attend without any restriction; unless the court determines that an open trial would be detrimental to public morality or discipline, or if in case of private disputes, both parties request not to hold open hearing”